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Centre for continuing education
Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore
Internet Courses: Environmental Management 2015-2016
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“eLIFE” publishes a special series of “The Natural History of Model Organisms“
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New Edition of Molecular Cell Biology.
Harvey Lodish et al.
W. H. Freeman and Company,
For Interactive Videos, Animations :
Link : www.whfreeman.com/lodish7e
For Complete Review of Book :
Must Read :
Amazing inspiring article published in renowned Current Science Magazine, March 2015 Issue.
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“Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution”.
– Theodosius Dobzhansky
12 Flasks with identical Escherichia coli populations + 25 mg Glucose +
other nutrients (1988)
Each new Day 1% of bacteria transferred to new flask containing fresh glucose.
After 75 Days Escherichia coli almost completes 500 generations
Some of them (ancestors) were preserved while remaining proceeded
for next generation.
Protocol followed for 25 years and still going on & on….
On generation number 6500, almost 3 years after experiment initiated there was a minute observation, it was regarding size of colonies formed by two types of Escherichia coli evolved in one of the flasks. One formed small colonies and other formed large colonies. Size of the colonies is directly proportional to the size of cells residing inside.
Lenski predicted that eventually one colony will out compete other colony. Other possibility is they may form ecosystem in which all the ecological interactions like competition, mutualism etc may take place. “He created his own Galápagos Islands,” Marx says.
The second major striking observation came when they saw Escherichia coli growing in flask containing glucose as well as citrate, recognizes “ohh there is another carbon source for utilization “ and one of the flask became turbid. After heavy analysis and experimental backup Lenski concluded that Escherichia coli switched on the gene coding for citrate transporter , 2933 base pair long which is otherwise silent.
Along with this Lenski also says,’ Each year pharmaceutical companies spends billions dollars trying to defeat evolution in microbes but rather than defeating they are causing selection in microbes and in effect causing antibiotic resistance.
Lenski who always describes himself as restless fellow to observe evolution so his lab created a program which will predict “Digital Evolution“. The software will gets evolved as it happens naturally. They created a virutal petri dish of digital organisms.
His Escherichia coli getting adapted and reaching fitness peak day by day. Today Escherichia coli reached to 62102.2 generations.Lenski’s experiment is going on till today, received funding from various sources.
“The man who asks a question is a fool for a minute, the man who does not ask is a fool for life ”
For becoming curious and sustain in life sciences one should ask questions to the Existing knowledge as well as to the past content.
We sometimes have an undue hesitation for asking questions in front of class/mob as our we think of big question that “What they think“. Our exams/interviews/jobs also teach us to give answers and questions to be asked by examiners.
But in life sciences if we don’t ask questions how we are going to find/discover novel things. There are many questions which are yet to be answered so we must have our curious question ticking in our mind and follow it regularly. A good carry forwarded question can make a curious and successful scientist.
So it’s my question to all those who don’t ask questions ” Why don’t you ask questions’ ???