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“eLIFE” publishes a special series of “The Natural History of Model Organisms“
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New Edition of Molecular Cell Biology.
Harvey Lodish et al.
W. H. Freeman and Company,
For Interactive Videos, Animations :
Link : www.whfreeman.com/lodish7e
For Complete Review of Book :
Must Read :
Amazing inspiring article published in renowned Current Science Magazine, March 2015 Issue.
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“Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution”.
– Theodosius Dobzhansky
12 Flasks with identical Escherichia coli populations + 25 mg Glucose +
other nutrients (1988)
Each new Day 1% of bacteria transferred to new flask containing fresh glucose.
After 75 Days Escherichia coli almost completes 500 generations
Some of them (ancestors) were preserved while remaining proceeded
for next generation.
Protocol followed for 25 years and still going on & on….
On generation number 6500, almost 3 years after experiment initiated there was a minute observation, it was regarding size of colonies formed by two types of Escherichia coli evolved in one of the flasks. One formed small colonies and other formed large colonies. Size of the colonies is directly proportional to the size of cells residing inside.
Lenski predicted that eventually one colony will out compete other colony. Other possibility is they may form ecosystem in which all the ecological interactions like competition, mutualism etc may take place. “He created his own Galápagos Islands,” Marx says.
The second major striking observation came when they saw Escherichia coli growing in flask containing glucose as well as citrate, recognizes “ohh there is another carbon source for utilization “ and one of the flask became turbid. After heavy analysis and experimental backup Lenski concluded that Escherichia coli switched on the gene coding for citrate transporter , 2933 base pair long which is otherwise silent.
Along with this Lenski also says,’ Each year pharmaceutical companies spends billions dollars trying to defeat evolution in microbes but rather than defeating they are causing selection in microbes and in effect causing antibiotic resistance.
Lenski who always describes himself as restless fellow to observe evolution so his lab created a program which will predict “Digital Evolution“. The software will gets evolved as it happens naturally. They created a virutal petri dish of digital organisms.
His Escherichia coli getting adapted and reaching fitness peak day by day. Today Escherichia coli reached to 62102.2 generations.Lenski’s experiment is going on till today, received funding from various sources.
“The man who asks a question is a fool for a minute, the man who does not ask is a fool for life ”
For becoming curious and sustain in life sciences one should ask questions to the Existing knowledge as well as to the past content.
We sometimes have an undue hesitation for asking questions in front of class/mob as our we think of big question that “What they think“. Our exams/interviews/jobs also teach us to give answers and questions to be asked by examiners.
But in life sciences if we don’t ask questions how we are going to find/discover novel things. There are many questions which are yet to be answered so we must have our curious question ticking in our mind and follow it regularly. A good carry forwarded question can make a curious and successful scientist.
So it’s my question to all those who don’t ask questions ” Why don’t you ask questions’ ???
Today on the occasion of International Women’s Day 2015, team Jaivikshastram pays tribute to all the women’s especially all of them who contributed to life sciences exceptionally. This year’s theme “Make it Happen” perfectly describes women’s ability in every field.
The first and foremost women who starts evolution in each of our life is the great ” Mother “. We all got energy organelle “Mitochondria” from our mother due to which we derive energy. We have huge history of successful women researchers who not only pioneer in their respective fields but also managed their family life.
Without writing too much about women and their versatile abilities (as there is lot to write), Team Jaivikshastram wish a ” Happy Women’s Day “ 2015 and thanks to each and every women in each of our life who changed our world by managing/sacrificing her priorities.
Where do we came from? Who we are ? Where we are going?
These questions arise time to time before, and answer to these questions we always in search of, but when science and particularly Charles Darwin’s term “Evolution” came in to picture the religious belief questioned. From there finding answer to these questions is become a curiosity. So we are trying to understand what is evolution?
Evolution is one of the most important concepts in the Biology. In fact Biology simply does not make sense without Evolution. Evolution is the idea that all living things arose from a common ancestor in the past and that life continues to diversify today as new species. Evolution explains why we can classify organisms into different groups. Evolution explains why the cells of all organisms use the same kind of biochemical machinery.
So let’s start by thinking about the discovery of Evolution. Beginning in Classical times and persisting until long after the Renaissance, scientists thought species were fixed and immutable. Their reasoning was like if God’s creation was perfect from the start, why would he bother to tinker with it at a later date? However, around 1800, some scientists began think if species transmute and one of them was French scientist, Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829). Lamarck thought that if an animal acquired a characteristic during its lifetime, it could pass it onto its offspring. One of his favourite examples was the giraffe. In his view, the giraffe got its long neck through straining to reach the leaves on high branches, and this characteristic got passed down the generations. Most scientists of his day thought that Lamarck was wrong. At that time, only a few radical thinkers like Charles Darwin’s grandfather, Erasmus, agreed that species could change over time.
We always come across many things which are interesting and which gives us some spark for pursuing our field of interest. We learn basic mechanical understanding of a subject in our masters, but if we want to do do better/best in that field, we must refill our minds with ink of interest and curiosity. As said in one of the leading biscuits Parle-G advertisement..
Bachpan se badi koi school nahi. Curiosity se badi koi teacher nahi.
Understanding this huge nature’s secrets is an imaginary task but possible… Sharing the knowledge can be one solution to spark the interest. For pursuing such interest in us and spreading it to others we have launched this website which is open to all. Do visit the site for updates and many more exiting things and be a part of team Jaivikshastram.- Gaurav